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DEPARTMENTS - SOCIAL STUDIES - Curriculum Management

New Jersey Curriculum

The vision of the social studies standards is one that fosters, for all students, the ability to understand their world and to have an appreciation for the heritage of America with a high degree of literacy in civics, history, economics and geography. In achieving this vision, students must:
? Acquire a basic understanding and appreciation of American traditions and values based on knowledge of history and of the development and functioning of the American constitutional system of government;
? Develop critical thinking skills which enable them to function as lifelong learners and to examine and evaluate issues of importance to all Americans;
? Acquire basic literacy in the core disciplines of social studies and have the basic understandings needed to apply this knowledge to their lives as citizens;
? Understand world history as the context for United States history and as a record of the great civilizations and cultures of the past and present; and
? Participate in activities that enhance the common good and increase the general welfare.
In order to assist students to reach this vision, school district programs must:
? Embrace the idea that all students can learn at high levels;
? Promote the teaching of critical thinking but also include appropriate content knowledge;
? Value the needs of students as key elements in instructional planning;
? Include the full spectrum of social studies including civics, world history, United States and New Jersey history, economics, and geography;
? Provide adequate resources to all classrooms; and
? Connect curriculum and instruction to assessment through the use of both traditional objective tests and performance assessments.
The teaching of the standards and indicators should be approached through the various social science and human perspectives. This enables students to appreciate the complexities of social and historical issues.

Descriptive Statement: The purpose of this standard is to develop the requisite skills needed to fully appreciate, comprehend, and apply knowledge of the other five social studies standards: civics, world history, United States and New Jersey history, geography, and economics. These skills must be integrated across all five standards. Students must understand basic concepts such as time, location, distance, and relationships and must be able to apply these concepts to the study of people, places, events, and issues. These skills focus on the importance of historical research as well as the need to distinguish fact from fiction and to understand cause and effect. These skills should not be taught in isolation; rather, students must use these skills in the study of all social studies disciplines.
Strands and Cumulative Progress Indicators
By the end of Grade 2, students will:
A. Social Studies Skills
1. Explain the concepts of long ago and far away.
2. Apply terms related to time including past, present, and future.
3. Identify sources of information on local, national, and international events (e.g., books, newspaper, TV, radio, Internet).
4. Retell events or stories with accuracy and appropriate sequencing.
5. Develop simple timelines.
Building upon the knowledge and skills gained in the previous grades, by the end of Grade 4 students will:
A. Social Studies Skills
1. Explain how present events are connected to the past.
2. Apply terms related to time including years, decades, centuries, and generations.
3. Locate sources for the same information (e.g., weather forecast on TV, the Internet or in a newspaper).
4. Organize events in a time line.
5. Distinguish between an eyewitness account and a secondary account of an event.
6. Distinguish fact from fiction.
Building upon the knowledge and skills gained in the previous grades, by the end of Grade 8 students will:
A. Social Studies Skills
1. Analyze how events are related over time.
2. Use critical thinking skills to interpret events, recognize bias, point of view, and context.
3. Assess the credibility of primary and secondary sources.
4. Analyze data in order to see persons and events in context.
5. Examine current issues, events, or themes and relate them to past events.
6. Formulate questions based on information needs.
7. Use effective strategies for locating information.
8. Compare and contrast competing interpretations of current and historical events.
9. Interpret events considering continuity and change, the role of chance, oversight and error, and changing interpretations by historians.
10. Distinguish fact from fiction by comparing sources about figures and events with fictionalized characters and events.
11. Summarize information in written, graphic, and oral formats.
Building upon the knowledge and skills gained in the previous grades, by the end of Grade 12 students will:
A. Social Studies Skills
1. Analyze how historical events shape the modern world.
2. Formulate questions and hypotheses from multiple perspectives, using multiple sources.
3. Gather, analyze, and reconcile information from primary and secondary sources to support or reject hypotheses.
4. Examine source data within the historical, social, political, geographic, or economic context in which it was created, testing credibility and evaluating bias.
5. Evaluate current issues, events, or themes and trace their evolution through historical periods.
6. Apply problem-solving skills to national, state, or local issues and propose reasoned solutions.
7. Analyze social, political, and cultural change and evaluate the impact of each on local, state, national, and international issues and events.
8. Evaluate historical and contemporary communications to identify factual accuracy, soundness of evidence, and absence of bias and discuss strategies used by the government, political candidates, and the media to communicate with the public.

Descriptive Statement: The purpose of this standard is to prepare students to be informed, active, and responsible citizens in the American democratic republic. It is essential that students have an understanding of the historical foundations, underlying values, and principles upon which the American system of representative democracy is based. Before citizens can make informed, responsible decisions as voters, jurors, workers, consumers, and community residents, they must have an understanding and appreciation of the fundamental concepts, laws and documents which form the American heritage including the Declaration of Independence, the United States Constitution, and the New Jersey State Constitution. Students must understand how a representative democracy works and the value of citizen participation in the nation, state and local communities. In addition, students must also be prepared to serve as global citizens; that is, students must be aware that the United States has a significant impact on the rest of the world, and conversely, the rest of the world impacts the United States. Technological advances bring the world to our doorstep. International education enables students to broaden their understanding of global issues that impact their life as Americans.
The study of politics, government, and society should start in early elementary grades with the identification of the need for rules, laws, and structures for decision-making or governance, and proceed through upper elementary grades to identify key documents and ideas that express democratic principles. Intermediate students should examine the various forms of government, the functions of the various branches of our federal government, as well as local and state levels of government. They must understand the ongoing need to balance individual rights and public needs. High school students should build on their prior knowledge and skills by analyzing the scope of governmental power, the spectrum of political views, and how the United States functions in a global society. Students should be encouraged not only to learn about how government works but also to apply their knowledge and to use their critical thinking, listening, and speaking skills to better understand the value of citizen participation in a representative democracy.
Five major topics are addressed in the indicators and are reflected in the following questions:
? What is government and what should it do?
? What are the basic values and principles of American democracy?
? How does the government established by the Constitution embody the purposes, values, and principles of American democracy?
? What is the relationship of the United States to other nations and to world affairs?
? How can citizens and groups participate effectively in the democratic process?
Strands and Cumulative Progress Indicators
By the end of Grade 2, students will:
A. Civic Life, Politics, and Government
1. Explain the need for rules, laws, and government.
2. Give examples of authority and recognize problems that might arise from lack of effective authority.
3. Describe how American citizens can participate in community and political life.
4. Explain that justice means fairness to all.
5. Explain that a responsibility means something you must or should do.
6. Explore basic concepts of diversity, tolerance, fairness, and respect for others.
B. American Values and Principles
1. Identify symbols of American values and beliefs such as the American Flag and the Statue of Liberty.
C. The Constitution and American Democracy
1. Identify community and government leaders (e.g., mayor, town council, President of the United States).
D. Citizenship
1. Identify examples of responsible citizenship in the school setting.
2. Recognize real people and fictional characters who have demonstrated responsible leadership and citizenship and identify the characteristics that have made them good examples.
E. International Education: Global Challenges, Cultures, and Connections
1. Explain that the United States is a diverse nation and one of many nations in the world.
2. Identify traditions and celebrations of various cultures (e.g., Chinese New Year, Cinco de Mayo).
3. Participate in activities such as dance, song, and games that represent various cultures.
Building upon knowledge and skills gained in preceding grades, by the end of Grade 4, students will:
A. Civic Life, Politics, and Government
1. Describe the characteristics of an effective rule or law (e.g., achieves purpose, clear, fair, protects rights and the common good).
2. Differentiate between power and authority.
3. Recognize that government exists at the community, county, state, and federal levels.
4. Recognize national, state, and local legislators and government officials and explain how to contact them for help or to express an opinion.
5. Describe the contributions of voluntary associations and organizations in helping government provide for its citizens.
B. American Values and Principles
1. Identify the fundamental values and principles of American democracy expressed in the Pledge of Allegiance, the Declaration of Independence, the United States Constitution and the Bill of Rights, and the first New Jersey Constitution.
2. Explain the significance of symbols of American values and beliefs, including the Statue of Liberty, the Statue of Justice, the American Flag, and the national anthem.
3. Describe how American values and beliefs, such as equality of opportunity, fairness to all, equal justice, separation of church and state, and the rights guaranteed by the United States Constitution and the Bill of Rights, contribute to the continuation and improvement of American democracy.
4. Evaluate the importance of traditions, values, and beliefs which form a common American heritage in an increasingly diverse American society.
C. The Constitution and American Democracy
1. Discuss how the Constitution describes how the United States government is organized and how it defines and limits the power of government.
2. Discuss how governmental bodies make decisions and explain the impact of those decisions on school and community life.
3. Identify major services provided by state and local government.
4. Delineate the respective roles of the three branches of the federal and state governments.
D. Citizenship
1. Explain that a citizen is a legally recognized member of the United States with rights and responsibilities, such as voting in elections and serving on juries.
2. Describe the significant characteristics of an effective citizen and discuss ways to influence public policy (e.g., serving in elected office, working on a campaign).
3. Describe the process by which immigrants can become United States citizens.
E. International Education: Global Challenges, Cultures, and Connections
1. Explain that the world is divided into many nations consisting of territory and people, with their own government, languages, customs, and laws.
2. Discuss how the United States interacts with other nations of the world through trade, treaties and agreements, diplomacy, cultural contacts, and sometimes through the use of military force.
3. Explain why it is important for nations to communicate and resolve disagreements through peaceful means.
4. Outline the purposes of the United Nations.
5. Identify current issues that may have a global impact (e.g., pollution, diseases) and discuss ways to address them.
6. Explain why it is important to understand diverse peoples, ideas, and cultures.
7. Explain that even within a culture, diversity may be affected by race, religion, or class.
8. Identify aspects of culture and heritage presented in literature, art, music, sport, or the media.
9. Examine common and diverse traits of other cultures and compare to their own culture.
10. Use technology to learn about students and their families in other countries through classroom links, email, and Internet research.
11. Define stereotyping and discuss how it impacts self-image and interpersonal relationships.
Building upon knowledge and skills gained in preceding grades, by the end of Grade 8, students will:
A. Civic Life, Politics, and Government
1. Discuss the sources, purposes, and functions of law and the importance of the rule of law for the preservation of individual rights and the common good.
2. Describe the underlying values and principles of democracy and distinguish these from authoritarian forms of government.
3. Discuss the major characteristics of democratic governments.
4. Describe the processes of local government.
5. Discuss examples of domestic policies and agencies that impact American lives, including the Environmental Protection Agency (e.g., clean air and water), the Department of Labor (e.g., minimum wage) and the Internal Revenue Service (e.g., Social Security, income tax).
6. Explain how non-governmental organizations influence legislation and policies at the federal, state, and local levels.
B. American Values and Principles
1. Analyze how certain values including individual rights, the common good, self-government, justice, equality and free inquiry are fundamental to American public life.
2. Describe representative government and explain how it works to protect the majority and the minority.
3. Describe the continuing struggle to bring all groups of Americans into the mainstream of society with the liberties and equality to which all are entitled, as exemplified by individuals such as Susan B. Anthony, Frederick Douglass, Nat Turner, Paul Robeson, and Cesar Chavez.
C. The Constitution and American Democracy
1. Discuss the major principles of the Constitution, including shared powers, checks and balances, separation of church and state, and federalism.
2. Compare and contrast the purposes, organization, functions, and interactions of the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of national, state, and local governments and independent regulatory agencies.
3. Discuss the role of political parties in the American democratic system including candidates, campaigns, financing, primary elections, and voting systems.
4. Discuss major historical and contemporary conflicts over United States constitutional principles, including judicial review in Marbury v. Madison, slavery in the Dred Scott Decision, separate but equal in Plessy v. Ferguson, and the rights of minorities in the Indian Removal Act.
5. Discuss major historical and contemporary conflicts over New Jersey constitutional principles (e.g., the impact of the New Jersey School Law of 1881 which required integration in the state’s public schools, Hedgepeth and Williams v. Trenton Board of Education, the Mount Laurel Decision, Jackman v. Bodine, Abbott v. Burke).
6. Research contemporary issues involving the constitutional rights of American citizens and other individuals residing in the United States, including voting rights, habeas corpus, rights of the accused, and the Patriot Act.
D. Citizenship
1. Discuss the rights and responsibilities of American citizens, including obeying laws, paying taxes, serving on juries, and voting in local, state, and national elections.
2. Discuss how the rights of American citizens may be in conflict with each other (e.g., right to privacy vs. free press).
3. Describe major conflicts that have arisen from diversity (e.g., land and suffrage for Native Americans, civil rights, women’s rights) and discuss how the conflicts have been addressed.
4. Explain the benefits, costs, and conflicts of a diverse nation.
5. Discuss basic contemporary issues involving the personal, political, and economic rights of American citizens (e.g., dress codes, sexual harassment, fair trial, free press, minimum wage).
E. International Education: Global Challenges, Cultures, and Connections
1. Analyze ways in which nation-states interact with one another through trade, diplomacy, cultural exchanges, treaties or agreements, humanitarian aid, economic incentives and sanctions, and the use or threat of military force.
2. Discuss factors that lead to a breakdown of order among nation-states (e.g., conflicts about national interests, ethnicity, and religion; competition for territory or resources; absence of effective means to enforce international law) and describe the consequences of the breakdown of order.
3. Compare and contrast the powers the Constitution gives to Congress, the President, the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, and the federal judiciary regarding foreign affairs.
4. Evaluate current United States foreign policy issues and strategies and their impact on the nation and the rest of the world.
5. Discuss the purposes and functions of major international organizations (e.g., United Nations, World Health Organization, International Red Cross, Amnesty International) and the role of the United States within each.
6. Describe how one’s heritage includes personal history and experiences, culture, customs, and family background.
7. Analyze how the life, culture, economics, politics, and the media of the United States impact the rest of the world.
8. Discuss how global challenges are interrelated, complex, and changing and that even local issues may have a global dimension (e.g., environmental issues, transportation).
9. Discuss how cultures may change and that individuals may identify with more than one culture.
10. Engage in activities that foster understanding of various cultures (e.g., clubs, dance groups, sports, travel, community celebrations).
11. Discuss the impact of the Internet and technology on global communication.
12. Discuss the impact of stereotyping on relationships, achievement, and life goals.
13. Analyze how prejudice and discrimination may lead to genocide as well as other acts of hatred and violence for the purposes of subjugation and exploitation.
Building upon knowledge and skills gained in preceding grades, by the end of Grade 12, students will:
A. Civic Life, Politics, and Government
1. Analyze how reserved and jointly held powers in the United States Constitution result in tensions among the three branches of government and how these tensions are resolved (e.g., Marbury v. Madison-1803; Federalist #78; United States v. Nixon-1974, claims of Executive Privilege by Presidents Nixon, Clinton, and Bush).
2. Apply the concept of the rule of law to contemporary issues (e.g., impeachment of President Clinton, use of Executive Privilege, recess appointments to federal courts, the Senate’s advise and consent process, and the use of litmus tests).
3. Analyze how individual responsibility and commitment to law are related to the stability of American society.
4. Evaluate competing ideas about the purpose of the national and state governments and how they have changed over time (e.g., the American version of federalism, the powers of the federal government and the states, differing interpretations of Article I, Sections 8-10).
5. Discuss how participation in civic and political life can contribute to the attainment of individual and public good.
6. Evaluate ways that national political parties influence the development of public policies and political platforms, including political action committees, McCain-Feingold Act, platform committees, and political campaigns.
7. Analyze how public opinion is measured and used in public debate (e.g., electronic polling, focus groups, Gallup polls, newspaper and television polls) and how public opinion can be influenced by the government and the media.
B. American Values and Principles
1. Analyze major historical events and important ideas that led to and sustained the constitutional government of the United States, including the Constitutional Convention of 1787, the Judiciary Act of 1789, the first Cabinet under George Washington, and Amendments 1-15.
2. Propose and justify new local, state, or federal governmental policies on a variety of contemporary issues (e.g., definition of marriage, voting systems and procedures, censorship, religion in public places).
3. Describe historic and contemporary efforts to reduce discrepancies between ideals and reality in American public life, including Amendments 13-15, the Civil Rights Act of 1866 and 1875, the Abolitionist movement, the Civil War, and the end of slavery in the United States.
4. Discuss how a common and shared American civic culture is based on commitment to central ideas in founding-era documents (e.g., United States Constitution) and in core documents of subsequent periods of United States history (e.g., Washington’s Farewell Address; Seneca Falls Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions-1848; The Gettysburg Address; President Franklin Roosevelt’s "Four Freedoms" speech -1941; President Kennedy’s Inaugural Address-1961; the 17th, 19th, and 24th Amendments; Martin Luther King Jr.’s "I Have a Dream" speech and the "Letter from Birmingham Jail").
5. Analyze the successes of American society and disparities between American ideals and reality in American political, social, and economic life and suggest ways to address them (e.g., rights of minorities, women, physically and mentally challenged individuals, foreign born individuals).
6. Explore the importance and presence of voluntarism and philanthropy in America and examine the role of local, state, national, and international organizations such as the American Red Cross, the Salvation Army, and the Rotary.
C. The Constitution and American Democracy
1. Debate current issues and controversies involving the central ideas of the American constitutional system, including representative government (e.g., Electoral College and the popular vote), civic virtue (e.g., increasing voter turnout through registrations and campaigns), checks and balances, and limits on governmental power.
2. Analyze, through current and historical examples and Supreme Court cases, the scope of governmental power and how the constitutional distribution of responsibilities seeks to prevent the abuse of that power.
3. Compare the American system of representative government with systems in other democracies such as the parliamentary systems in England and France.
4. Compare and contrast the major constitutional and legal responsibilities of the federal government for domestic and foreign policy and describe how disagreements are resolved.
5. Describe the nature of political parties in America and how they reflect the spectrum of political views on current state and federal policy issues.
6. Explain the federal and state legislative process and analyze the influence of lobbying, advocacy groups, the media, and campaign finance on the development of laws and regulations.
D. Citizenship
1. Evaluate the characteristics needed for effective participation in civic and political life.
2. Compare and contrast the rights and responsibilities of government and its citizens as delineated in the United States Constitution, the New Jersey Constitution of 1947, and the United Nations’ Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
3. Compare and contrast the benefits of American citizenship (e.g., habeas corpus, secret ballots, freedom of movement and expression) with those of citizens of other nations, including democratic and non-democratic countries.
4. Recommend ways that citizens can use knowledge of state or federal government policies and decision-making processes to influence the formation, development, or implementation of current public policy issues (e.g., First Amendment right to petition for redress of grievances).
5. Discuss how citizens can participate in the political process at the local, state, or national level (e.g., registering to vote, voting, attending meetings, contacting a representative, demonstrating, petitions, boycotting) and analyze how these forms of political participation influence public policy.
E. International Education: Global Challenges, Cultures, and Connections
1. Compare and contrast key past and present United States foreign policy actions (e.g., diplomacy, economic aid, humanitarian aid, military aid) and positions (e.g., treaties, sanctions, interventions) and evaluate their consequences.
2. Analyze and evaluate United States foreign policy actions and positions, including the Monroe Doctrine, the Mexican Cession, the Truman Doctrine, the Cold War, the world-wide struggle against terrorism, and the Iraq War.
3. Describe how the world is organized politically into nation-states and alliances and how these interact with one another through organizations such as the European Union, North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the United Nations, the World Court, and the Group of Seven Industrialized Nations (G7).
4. Analyze and evaluate the interconnections of local, regional, and national issues with global challenges and issues, and recommend possible solutions.
5. Discuss how global interconnections can have both positive and negative consequences (e.g., international companies, transfer of jobs to foreign plants, international security and access to transportation).
6. Investigate a global challenge (e.g., hunger, AIDS, nuclear defense, global warming) in depth and over time, predict the impact if the current situation does not change, and offer possible solutions.
7. Participate in events to acquire understanding of complex global problems (e.g., Model United Nations, international simulations, field trips to government sites).
8. Justify an opinion or idea about a global issue while showing respect for divergent viewpoints.
9. Discuss the impact of technology, migration, the economy, politics, and urbanization on culture.
10. Compare and contrast common social and behavioral practices in various cultures (e.g., birth, marriage, death, gender issues, family structure, health issues).
11. Participate in activities that foster understanding and appreciation for diverse cultures (e.g., world language instruction, student exchange, clubs, international forums, community service, speaker programs, arts, sports).
12. Analyze the impact of communication networks, technology, transportation, and international business on global issues.
13. Analyze how the media presents cultural stereotypes and images and discuss how this impacts beliefs and behaviors.
14. Connect the concept of universal human rights to world events and issues.
15. Compare and contrast current and past genocidal acts and other acts of hatred and violence for the purposes of subjugation and exploitation (e.g., Holocaust, Native Americans, Irish famine, Armenia, Ukrainian collectivization, Cambodia, Rwanda) and discuss present and future actions by individuals and governments to prevent the reoccurrence of such events.

Descriptive Statement: This standard includes content relating to eight periods of world history, including:
? The Birth of Civilization to 1000 BCE (BC)
? Early Human Societies to 500 CE (AD)
? Developing Human Societies to 1400 CE (AD)
? The Age of Global Encounters (1400-1750)
? The Age of Revolutionary Change (1750-1914)
? The Era of the Great Wars (1914-1945)
? The Modern World (1945 to 1979)
? Looking to the Future (1980-present)
The standards do not outline specific world history content and skills for students in grades K-4. Students in grades K-4 need to develop the social studies skills outlined in Standards 6.1 in order to understand the complex information presented in grades 5-8. Standard 6.2: Civics and Standard 6.4: United States and New Jersey History provide a foundation for the study of home, family, community, culture, international education, and global issues. In addition, as elementary students begin the study of a world language, they will learn about the history and culture of countries where the target language is spoken. Finally, the visual and performing arts standards require that students study works of art from various historical periods and diverse cultures. Thus, K-4 students will have multiple opportunities to study world history from different perspectives through a more integrated approach.
The Cumulative Progress Indicators (CPIs) are grouped primarily in two grade clusters, grades 5 to 8 and grades 9 to 12. In order to study the periods of history in more depth, students in grades five through eight study the first four periods, from the development of human civilization in prehistory to the beginning of the post-medieval world. Students in grades 9 through 12 study the last five periods from global encounters to the contemporary world. Throughout the teaching of history, teachers are encouraged to connect events being studied to similar occurrences at different times in history and to current events. Teachers should endeavor to address the following critical questions of historical study:
Are there general lessons to be learned from history?
How and why do societies change?
What is civilization and how has it been defined? Why do civilizations decline and perish?
Why is there political and social conflict?
How does religion influence the development of individual societies as well as global processes?
Are individuals as important as underlying structures in explaining change?
How have social institutions and groups failed to function in a positive way when people have behaved in cruel or inhumane ways?
How have people worked to combat instances of prejudice, cruelty, and discrimination?
The history topics listed for each of the eight eras of world history are organized around the following geographic areas: Eastern Europe, Western Europe, East Asia, Africa, the Middle East, North America, and Latin/Mesoamerica. They are grouped around the following topics:
? Study of a particular civilization
? Specific structures within the civilization (political, social, economic)
? Comparative civilizations/societies
? Connections among civilizations
? Global processes such as trade, conflict, and demographic change
? World religions
? Humanities: arts, sciences, and culture
Students need to learn critical and historical thinking as they study history and cultures, the role of geography and the development of social, economic and political structures throughout the world at various times. There should also be a balanced look at some of the political, social, cultural and technological changes that occurred in Europe, Africa, the Middle East and Asia and the Americas from earliest times to the present. Students should trace the evolution of selected important ideas, beliefs, practices, and technologies as they shaped major developments.
Strands and Cumulative Progress Indicators
By the end of Grade 2, students will:
Learn content and skills found in Standards 6.1 (Social Studies Skills) and 6.2 (Civics).
Building upon the knowledge and skills gained in the preceding grades, by the end of Grade 4, students will:
Learn content and skills found in Standards 6.1 (Social Studies Skills) and 6.2 (Civics).
Building upon knowledge and skills gained in the preceding grades, by the end of Grade 8, students will:
A. The Birth of Civilization to 1000 BCE
1. Describe the physical and cultural changes that shaped the earliest human communities as revealed through scientific methods, including:
? Early hominid development, including the development of language and writing
? Migration and adaptation to new environments
? Differences between wild and domestic plants and animals
? Locations of agricultural settlements
? Differences between hunter/gatherer, fishing, and agrarian communities
2. Describe how environmental conditions impacted the development of different human communities (e.g., population centers, impact of the last Ice Age).
3. Compare and contrast the economic, political, and environmental factors (e.g., climate, trade, geography) that led to the development of major ancient civilizations including Mesopotamia (e.g., Hammurabi’s Code), Egypt, the Indus Valley, the Yellow River, and Kush (Nubia).
B. Early Human Societies to 500CE
1. Explain the historical context, origins, beliefs, and moral teachings of the major world religions and philosophies, including:
? The origins of Judaism and Christianity and the emergence of the Judeo-Christian tradition
? The influence of Confucianism, Daoism, and Buddhism on the formation of Chinese civilization
? Hinduism, the Aryan migrations, and the caste system in India
? The influence of Buddhism in India
2. Describe the political framework of Athenian society and its influence on modern society, including:
? The influence of Athenian political ideals on public life
? The importance of participatory government
? The role of women in Athenian society, their rights under law, and possible reasons why democracy was limited to males
? Athenian ideas and practices related to political freedom, national security, and justice
3. Describe the social and political characteristics of the Greek city-states, including:
? Similarities and differences between Athenian democracy and Spartan military aristocracy
? Location and political structure of the city-states
? Hierarchical relationships in Greek societies
? Civic, economic, and social tasks performed by men and women of different classes
4. Describe the significant contributions of ancient Greece to Western Civilization, including:
? Characteristics of Classic Greek art and architecture and how they are reflected in modern art and architecture
? Socrates’ values and ideas
? Philosophy, including Plato and Aristotle
? Greek Drama, including Sophocles and Euripides
? History, including Herodotus, Xenophon, and Thucydides
? Greek mythology
5. Discuss the cultural influences of Greece, Egypt, Persia, and India on Mediterranean cultures through assimilation, conquest, migration, and trade.
6. Discuss the origins and social framework of Roman society, including:
? The geographic location of various ethnic groups on the Italian peninsula and their influence on early Roman society
? The legends of the founding of Rome and how they reflect the beliefs and values of its citizens
? Daily life in Rome and Pompeii
7. Describe the political and social framework of Roman society, including:
? Political and social institutions of the Roman Republic and reasons for its transformation from Republic to Empire
? The influence of key Roman leaders
8. Analyze how shifts in the political framework of Roman society impacted the expansion of the empire and how this expansion transformed Roman society, economy, and culture.
9. Discuss the political events that may have contributed to the decline of the Roman Empire, including internal divisions, significant battles, invasions, and political changes.
10. Describe the development of the Mayan civilization from agricultural community to an urban civilization, including the influence of the environment on agricultural methods, water utilization, and herding methods.
11. Describe the significant features of Mayan civilization, including the locations of Mayan city-states, road systems, and sea routes, the role and status of elite men and women in Mayan society and their portrayal in Mayan architecture, the role of religion and ceremonial games in Mayan culture, and the structure and purpose of the Mayan pyramids.
C. Expanding Zones of Exchange and Interaction to 1400 CE
1. Discuss how Western civilization arose from a synthesis of Christianity and classical Greco-Roman civilization with the cultures of northern European peoples.
2. Discuss the spread of Islam in Southwest Asia, the Mediterranean region, and Northern Africa and the influence of Islamic ideas and practices on other cultures and social behavior, including:
? The origin and development of Islamic law
? The significance of the Quran and the Five Pillars of Islam
? The diverse religious, cultural, and geographic factors that influenced the ability of the Muslim government to rule
? The split into Sunni and Shi’ite factions
? The importance of Muslim civilization in mediating long-distance commercial, cultural, intellectual, and food crop exchange across Eurasia and parts of Africa
3. Discuss the significance of the developing cultures of Asia, including the Golden Age in China and spread of Chinese civilization to Japan, Korea, and Southeast Asia and the rise of the Mongol Empire and its impact on the Kievan Rus.
4. Analyze the rise of the West African Empires of Ghana, Mali, and Songhay and compare with changes in Asia, Europe, and the Americas.
5. Analyze the relationships between Mesoamerican and Andean societies, including:
? The growth of urban societies and urban planning
? Religions and rituals
? Governing structure and economy
? The construction of the Mesoamerican calendar
? Similarities in agriculture, societal structures, and artisan crafts
6. Explain the medieval origins of constitutional government in England (e.g., Edward I, Magna Carta, Model Parliament of 1295, Common Law).
7. Discuss the evolution of significant political, economic, social and cultural institutions and events that shaped European medieval society, including Catholic and Byzantine churches, feudalism and manorialism, the Crusades, the rise of cities, and changing technology.
D. The Age of Global Encounters (1400-1750)
1. Discuss factors that contributed to oceanic travel and exploration in the 15th and 16th centuries, including technological innovations in ship building navigation, naval warfare, navigational inventions such as the compass, and the impact of wind currents on the major trade routes.
2. Describe the significant contributions of the Renaissance and Reformation to European society, including major achievements in literature, music, painting, sculpture, and architecture.
3. Compare the social and political elements of Incan and Aztec societies, including the major aspects of government, the role of religion, daily life, economy, and social organization.
Building upon knowledge and skills gained in preceding grades, by the end of Grade 12, students will:
A. The Birth of Civilization to 1000 BCE
Reinforce indicators from previous grade levels.
B. Early Human Societies to 500 CE
Reinforce indicators from previous grade levels.
C. Expanding Zones of Exchange and Interaction to 1400 CE
Reinforce indicators from previous grade levels.
D. The Age of Global Encounters (1400-1750)
1. Discuss the major developments in Asia, Africa, and the Americas, including China during the Ming and Qing Dynasty, Japan during the Tokugawa Period, the influence of Islam in shaping the political and social structure in the Middle East, including the Ottoman period, West Africa, including Mali and Songhay, India, including the Mughal Empire, and the impact of European arrival in the Americas.
2. Analyze and compare the ways that slavery and other forms of coerced labor or social bondage were practiced in East Africa, West Africa, Southwest Asia, Europe, and the Americas.
3. Describe the significant social and cultural changes that took place during the Renaissance, including advances in printing press technology, the works of Renaissance writers and elements of Humanism, the revival of Greco-Roman art, architecture, and scholarship, and differing ideas on the role of women.
4. Describe the early influences on the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment, including:
? Renaissance Humanism with emphasis on human reason as opposed to total reliance on faith
? Medieval theology
? New global knowledge
? The use of reason and freedom of inquiry as challenges to authoritarianism, including the works of Montesquieu, Locke, and Jefferson
5. Discuss the contributions of the Scientific Revolution to European society, including important discoveries in mathematics, physics, biology, and chemistry, and the significance of the scientific method advanced by Descartes and Bacon.
6. Discuss the major developments in European society and culture, including:
? The Protestant Reformation as a result of the weakening of the Papacy and revolts against corruption in the Church
? Martin Luther and John Calvin as leaders of new sects that establish the importance of the individual conscience, including religious choice
? European explorations and the establishment of colonial empires
? Trans-Atlantic slave trade and its impact on Africa
? Commercial Revolution
? The English Revolution and the strengthening of Parliament as a countervailing force to the monarchy and importance of the balance of powers, including the Glorius Revolution and the English Bill of Rights
? Economic consequences of European expansion, including the role of the mercantilist economic theory, the commercial revolution, and the early growth of capitalism
? The economic, social, religious, and political impact of the Plague
E. The Age of Revolutionary Change (1750-1914)
1. Discuss the causes and consequences of political revolutions in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, including:
? The impact of the American Revolution on global political thought
? The ideas and events that shaped the French Revolution (e.g., monarchy vs. social ideals of liberty, equality, and fraternity; political beliefs and writings; development of the empire)
? The spread of revolutionary ideas through the Napoleonic period (e.g., Napoleonic Code)
? The emergence of a politically active middle class and the rise of ideologies which questioned class structure in many European countries contributing to socialism and communism
? How the Industrial Revolution, based on new manufacturing processes and the availability of labor, began the preeminence of Europe in the world economy
? The concept of laissez-faire and the ideas of Adam Smith in Wealth of Nations
? Democratic and social reforms, including the struggle for women’s rights and the expansion of parliamentary government
? The rise of European nationalism, imperialism, and its effect on the European balance of power, particularly the unification of Italy and Germany
2. Discuss how industrialization shaped social class (e.g., child labor, conditions of social class) and the development of labor organizations.
3. Explain the main patterns of global change in colonizing Africa, Asia, the Middle East, and the Americas, including the Indian Ocean and Pan Asian economies prior to the rise of Europe.
4. Trace the growth of independence movements and the rejection of colonialism including the Haitian Revolution and leaders such as Toussaint L’Ouverture, Simon Bolivar in Venezuela, and Jose Manti in Cuba.
5. Evaluate the changes brought about by the Meiji Restoration period in Japan (e.g., modernization, changes in policies on Western influence).
6. Describe how Christianity, Islam, and Buddhism spread during this period, including the areas of influence and reasons for the growth.
7. Discuss events that shaped the social structure of Russia in the 19th and early 20th century, including:
? Peasants, aristocracy, and serfdom
? Czarist reforms and the abolition of serfdom
? Relations with the Ottoman Empire
? Development of the Trans-Siberian railroad and other forms of modernization
F. The Era of the Great Wars (1914-1945)
1. Analyze the causes and aftermath of World War I, including:
? The growth of European nationalism and increased competition for resources and markets
? Technology and the changing face of war
? The Russian Revolutions of 1905 and 1917 and the creation of the Soviet Union (e.g., Lenin’s political ideology, Marxist economic policies, Stalin’s policies on industrialization)
? The League of Nations and the effects of the Versailles Conference on Europe, Africa, Asia, and the Middle East
? Nationalism and propaganda
? Disintegration of the Ottoman Empire
2. Analyze the background and global consequences of actions leading to World War II, including:
? The Great Depression, including the Stock Market Crash of 1929, massive business and bank failures, and 12 million lost jobs
? The rise of totalitarian governments in the Soviet Union, Germany, and Italy
? The fall of the democratic Weimar Republic and the rise of Nazism and European anti-Semitism resulting in the Holocaust and its impact on Jewish life and culture and European society
? Other twentieth century genocides, (e.g., Turkey/Armenia, Soviet forced collectivization in the Ukraine, Japan’s occupations in China and Korea)
? Evaluate the importance of the beginning of the Atomic Age in science, the technological revolution, and the implications of military technology used in war
G. The Modern World (1945-1979)
1. Analyze the transition from wartime alliances to new patterns of global conflict and cooperation, and the reconstruction of Europe and Asia, including:
? The origin and major developments of the Cold War
? Communist takeover in China, Korea, and Vietnam and the creation of NATO, SEATO, and CENTO
? The formation, structure, and purpose of the United Nations
? The Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan
? The growth and decline of Communism in Eastern Europe
? The rise of nationalism and the beginning of nation-building movements in Africa, Latin America, and Asia
? The international arms race and nuclear proliferation
? The non-aligned nations during the Cold War as the voice of the Third World
2. Apply historical analysis to explain global political, economic, and social changes in the 20th century, including:
? Growth and adaptation of Communism in China
? Japan’s economic and political transformation and growth of East Asian economies
? Conflicts in Eastern Europe and the Middle East
? The Israel/Palestine conflict
? The impact of Gandhi and the nonviolence movement
? Apartheid and South Africa
H. Looking to the Future (1980-present)
1. Analyze global political, economic, and social changes in the 20th century, including:
? The Gulf War
? The war in Iraq
? Growth of a world economy with the information, technological, and communications revolutions
? The oil crisis and impact of oil producing countries on world economy
? The development of Third World nations
2. Assess the growth of a worldwide economy of interdependent regions and the development of a dynamic new world order of increasingly interdependent regions, including NATO, the World Bank, the United Nations, the World Court, the North American Free Trade Agreement, and the European Economic Union, IMF and OPEC.
3. Evaluate the paradoxes and promises of the 21st century, including:
? Technological growth
? Economic imbalance and social inequalities among the world’s people
? New patterns of world migration shaped by international labor demands
? Global market, economy, trade, and communications
? Rapid population growth and increasing urbanization
? The growth of terrorism as a means of warfare
? Democratic reform
4. Analyze the development and effects of multinational corporations on trade, employment, and the environment.
Descriptive statement: This standard introduces students in grades K-4 to the history of the United States and New Jersey through the study of family and community life. Through this study, students also become aware of many cultural traditions and heritages that contribute to the diversity of this country. As a foundation for further study in grades 5-8, students learn about important issues and personalities that have influenced the history of the state and the nation. Within the grades 5-12 cluster, students study the following ten periods in New Jersey and American history:
? Many Worlds Meet (to 1620)
? Colonization and Settlement (1585-1763)
? Revolution and the New Nation (1754-1820)
? Expansion and Reform (1801-1861)
? Civil War and Reconstruction (1850-1877)
? The Industrial Revolution (1870-1900)
? The Emergence of Modern America (1890-1930)
? The Great Depression and World War II (1929-1945)
? Postwar Years (1945-1970)
? Contemporary America (1968-present)
Within the ten broad eras, the indicators cover the political, social, cultural, diplomatic, scientific/technological, and military aspects of United States history. Throughout the teaching of these periods, teachers are encouraged to connect events being studied to similar occurrences at different times in history and to current events. In addition, the study of New Jersey history provides an excellent laboratory for teaching major themes in American history. New Jersey history, and the many historical sites located throughout the state, provides close-at-hand, immediate examples that make American history real to students.
Strands and Cumulative Progress Indicators
By the end of Grade 2, students will:
A. Family and Community Life
1. Recognize change and continuity in their lives.
2. Describe their family history through two generations.
3. Compare family life today with long ago.
4. Tell about their family heritage using stories, songs, and drawings.
B. State and Nation
1. Recognize the names of major figures in American history, including George Washington, Abraham Lincoln, Sacajawea, Harriet Tubman, Susan B. Anthony, and Martin Luther King Jr.
2. Discuss the contributions of important women, African Americans, and Native Americans to United States and New Jersey history.
3. Explain the historical significance of major national holidays (e.g. Independence Day, Labor Day) and American symbols.
4. Relate why important national buildings, statues, and monuments are associated with our national history.
Building upon knowledge and skills gained in preceding grades, by the end of Grade 4, students will:
A. Family and Community Life
1. Discuss how families long ago expressed and transmitted their beliefs and values through oral tradition, literature, songs, and celebrations.
2. Compare family life in a community of the past to life in a community of the present.
3. Discuss the reasons why various groups, voluntarily and involuntarily, immigrated to America and New Jersey and describe the problems they encountered.
4. Discuss the history of their community, including the origins of its name, groups and individuals who lived there, and access to important places and buildings in the community.
5. Explain that Americans have come from different parts of the world and have a common American heritage, in addition to the heritage of the countries of origin.
6. Describe situations in which people from diverse backgrounds work together to solve common problems.
B. State and Nation
1. Compare the major early culture of the Lenape that existed in the region that became New Jersey prior to contact with the Europeans.
2. Discuss the reasons why revolutionary leaders, including George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, and Governor William Livingston fought for independence from England.
3. Discuss New Jersey’s role during the American Revolution.
4. Identify major documents and symbols in New Jersey and American history, including the Mayflower Compact, the Declaration of Independence, the United States Constitution, the New Jersey State Seal, and Martin Luther King Jr.’s "I Have a Dream" speech.
5. Identify and discuss major scientific discoveries and inventions, the scientists and inventors who developed them (e.g., Thomas Edison), and their impact on life today.
6. Discuss the experiences of immigrants who came to the United States and New Jersey, including reasons for immigrating, experiences at Ellis Island, and working and living conditions in America.
7. Describe the population shift from the farm to the city in New Jersey.
8. Discuss the value of the American national heritage including:
? Diverse folklore and cultural contributions from New Jersey and other regions in the United States
? History and values celebrated in American songs, symbols, slogans, and major holidays
? Historical preservation of primary documents, buildings, places of memory, and significant artifacts
Building upon knowledge and skills gained in preceding grades, by the end of Grade 8, students will:
A. Family and Community Life
Reinforce indicators from previous grade levels.
B. State and Nation
Reinforce indicators from previous grade levels.
C. Many Worlds Meet (to 1620)
1. Discuss factors that stimulated European overseas explorations between the 15th and 17th centuries and the impact of that exploration on the modern world.
2. Trace the major land and water routes of the explorers.
3. Compare the political, social, economic, and religious systems of Africans, Europeans, and Native Americans who converged in the western hemisphere after 1492 (e.g., civic values, population levels, family structure, communication, use of natural resources).
4. Discuss the characteristics of the Spanish and Portuguese exploration and conquest of the Americas, including Spanish interaction with the Incan and Aztec empires, expeditions in the American Southwest, and the social composition of early settlers and their motives for exploration and conquest.
5. Describe the migration of the ancestors of the Lenape Indians and their culture at the time of first contact with Europeans.
6. Compare and contrast historic Native American groups of the West, Southwest, Northwest, Arctic and sub-Arctic, Great Plains, and Eastern Woodland regions at the beginning of European exploration.
7. Analyze the cultures and interactions of peoples in the Americas, Western Europe, and Africa after 1450 including the transatlantic slave trade.
8. Discuss how millions of Africans, brought against their will from Central Africa to the Americas, including Brazil, Caribbean nations, North America and other destinations, retained their humanity, their families, and their cultures during enslavement.
D. Colonization and Settlement (1585-1763)
1. Analyze the political, social, and cultural characteristics of the English colonies.
2. Describe the political, religious, social, and economic institutions that emerged in Colonial America, including New Netherland and colonial New Jersey.
3. Explain the differences in colonization of the Americas by England, the Netherlands, France, and Spain, including governance, relation to the mother countries, and interactions with other colonies and Native Americans.
4. Examine the interactions between Native Americans and European settlers, such as agriculture, trade, cultural exchanges, and military alliances and conflicts.
5. Describe Native American resistance to colonization, including the Cherokee War against the English, the French and Indian War, and King George’s War.
6. Identify factors that account for the establishment of African slavery in the Americas.
7. Discuss Spanish exploration, settlement, and missions in the American Southwest.
E. Revolution and the New Nation (1754-1820)
1. Discuss the background and major issues of the American Revolution, including the political and economic causes and consequences of the revolution.
2. Discuss the major events (e.g. Boston Tea Party, Battle of Trenton) and personalities (e.g., George Washington, John Adams, John Witherspoon, William Franklin, Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson) of the American Revolution.
3. Identify major British and American leaders and describe their roles in key events, such as the First and Second Continental Congresses, drafting and approving the Declaration of Independence (1776), the publication of "Common Sense," and major battles of the Revolutionary War.
4. Explain New Jersey’s critical role in the American Revolution, including major battles, the involvement of women and African Americans, and the origins of the movement to abolish slavery.
5. Discuss the political and philosophical origins of the United States Constitution and its implementation in the 1790s.
6. Describe and map American territorial expansions and the settlement of the frontier during this period.
7. Analyze the causes and consequences of continuing conflict between Native American tribes and colonists (e.g., Tecumseh’s rebellion).
8. Discuss the background and major issues of the War of 1812 (e.g., sectional issues, role of Native Americans).

F. Expansion and Reform (1801-1861)
1. Describe the political, economic, and social changes in New Jersey and American society preceding the Civil War, including the early stages of industrialization, the growth of cities, and the political, legal, and social controversies surrounding the expansion of slavery.
2. Discuss American cultural, religious, and social reform movements in the antebellum period (e.g., abolitionists, the Second Great Awakening, the origins of the labor and women’s movements).
3. Explain the concept of the Manifest Destiny and its relationship to the westward movement of settlers and territorial expansion, including the purchase of Florida (1819), the annexation of Texas (1845), the acquisition of the Oregon Territory (1846), and territorial acquisition resulting from the Mexican War (1846-1848).
4. Explain the characteristics of political and social reform movements in the antebellum period in New Jersey, including the 1844 State Constitution, the temperance movement, the abolition movement, and the women’s rights movement.
5. Explain the importance of internal improvements on the transformation of New Jersey’s economy through New Jersey’s two canals and the Camden and Amboy Railroad.
6. Discuss the economic history of New Jersey, including growth of major industries and businesses, the lives of factory workers, and occupations of working people.
7. Compare political interests and views regarding the War of 1812 (e.g., US responses to shipping harassment, interests of Native Americans and white settlers in the Northwest Territory).
8. Discuss sectional compromises associated with westward expansion of slavery, such as the Missouri Compromise (1820) and the continued resistance to slavery by African Americans (e.g., Amistad Revolt).
9. Describe and map the continuing territorial expansion and settlement of the frontier, including the acquisition of new territories and conflicts with Native Americans, the Louisiana Purchase, the Lewis and Clark expedition, and the California gold rush.
10. Explain how state and federal policies influenced various Native American tribes (e.g., homeland vs. resettlement, Black Hawk War, Trail of Tears).
11. Understand the institution of slavery in the United States, resistance to it, and New Jersey’s role in the Underground Railroad.
G. Civil War and Reconstruction (1850-1877)
1. Explain the major events, issues, and personalities of the American Civil War including:
? The causes of the Civil War (e.g., slavery, states’ rights)
? The course and conduct of the war (e.g., Antietam, Vicksburg, Gettysburg)
? Sectionalism
? The Dred Scott and other Supreme Court decisions
? The role of women
? The role of African Americans
? The Gettysburg Address
? The Emancipation Proclamation
? Juneteenth Independence Day
2. Analyze different points of view in regard to New Jersey’s role in the Civil War, including abolitionist sentiment in New Jersey and New Jersey’s vote in the elections of 1860 and 1864.
3. Explain Reconstruction as a government action, how it worked, and its effects after the war.
4. Discuss the impact of retaliatory state laws and general Southern resistance to Reconstruction.
5. Discuss the Dawes Act of 1887, how it attempted to assimilate Native Americans by converting tribal lands to individual ownership, and its impact on Native Americans.
Building upon knowledge and skills gained in preceding grades, by the end of Grade 12, students will:
A. Family and Community Life
Reinforce indicators from previous grade levels.
B. State and Nation
Reinforce indicators from previous grade levels.
C. Many Worlds Meet (to 1620)
Reinforce indicators from previous grade levels.
D. Colonization and Settlement (1585-1763)
1. Analyze the major issues of the colonial period, including European hegemony over North America and mercantilism and trade.
2. Analyze how American colonial experiences caused change in the economic institutions of Europe, Africa, and the native population by examining indentured servitude and slavery and the rights of men and women.
3. Analyze the cultural reactions and survival techniques used by enslaved Africans to maintain their family structure, culture, and faith.
4. Analyze the political, religious, social, and economic institutions that emerged in colonial New Jersey.
5. Discuss Spanish exploration, settlement, and missions in the American Southwest.
E. Revolution and the New Nation (1754-1820)
1. Discuss the social, political, and religious aspects of the American Revolution, including key decisions leading to the Revolution, efforts by Parliament and the colonies to prevent revolution, the ideas of different religious denominations, and the economic and social differences of Loyalists, Patriots, and those who remained neutral.
2. Analyze the social and economic impact of the Revolutionary War, including problems of financing the war (e.g., wartime inflation, hoarding and profiteering), the impact of the war on women and African Americans, and the personal and economic hardships on families involved with the war.
3. Discuss the involvement of European nations during the Revolution and how their involvement influenced the outcome and aftermath (e.g., the assistance of France and Spain, how the self-interests of France and Spain differed from the United States after the war, the contributions of European military leaders, the creation of the Alien Sedition Acts).
4. Analyze strategic elements used during the Revolutionary War, discuss turning points during the war, and explain how the Americans won the war against superior resources.
5. Analyze New Jersey’s role in the American Revolution, including New Jersey’s Constitution of 1776 as a revolutionary document, why some New Jerseyans became Loyalists, and the Battles of Trenton, Princeton, and Monmouth.
6. Compare and contrast the major philosophical and historical influences on the development of the Constitution (e.g., Washington’s Farewell Address (1796), Locke’s Second Treatise, the ideas of Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, Thomas Jefferson, and William Paterson).
7. Describe the early evolution of the system of government and political parties in the United States (e.g., presidential elections of 1792, 1796, 1800).
8. Discuss the implementation of the federal government under the United States Constitution during the presidency of George Washington.
9. Describe the origin and development of the political parties, the Federalists, and the Democratic Republicans (1793-1801).
F. Expansion and Reform (1801-1861)
1. Discuss the political interests and views of the War of 1812 (e.g., US responses to shipping harassment, role of Native Americans, role of white settlers in the Northwest Territory; congressional positions for and against the war).
2. Analyze American territorial expansion during this period, including the reasons for and consequences of the Louisiana Purchase, the Monroe Doctrine, Manifest Destiny, the Mexican War, the settlement of the frontier, and conflicts with Native-Americans.
3. Analyze the political, economic, and social changes in New Jersey prior to the Civil War, including the growth of New Jersey’s cities, New Jersey’s 1844 Constitution, the early stages of industrialization, including Alexander Hamilton and the Society for the Establishment of Useful Manufacturing, and the political and economic implications of the transportation monopolies.
4. Compare and contrast the characteristics of cultural, religious, and social reform movements in the antebellum period, including the abolition movement, the public school movement, the temperance movement, and the women’s rights movement (e.g., Seneca Falls Declaration of Sentiments).
G. Civil War and Reconstruction (1850-1877)
1. Analyze key issues, events, and personalities of the Civil War period, including New Jersey’s role in the Abolitionist Movement and the national elections, the development of the Jersey Shore, and the roles of women and children in New Jersey factories.
2. Assess the continuing social and political issues following the Civil War, including the various Reconstruction plans, the amendments to the United States Constitution, and the women’s suffrage movement.
3. Describe New Jersey’s role in the post-Civil War era, including New Jersey’s votes on the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments to the United States Constitution.
H. The Industrial Revolution (1870-1900)
1. Analyze and evaluate key events, people, and groups associated with industrialization and its impact on urbanization, immigration, farmers, the labor movement, social reform, and government regulation including:
? Inventions such as the telephone and electric light
? The formation of Standard Oil Trust
? The Interstate Commerce Act
? The Sherman Anti-Trust Act
2. Analyze the development of industrialization in America and New Jersey during this period and the resulting transformation of the country, including the construction of the transcontinental railroad, the introduction of mechanized farming, the rise of corporations and organized labor, and the growth of cities.
3. Analyze social and political trends in post Reconstruction America, including immigration restrictions, Jim Crow Laws and racial segregation, the rise of extra legal organizations such as the Ku Klux Klan, and the Plessy v. Ferguson decision.
4. Describe the economic development by which the United States became a major industrial power in the world and analyze the factors that contributed to industrialization.
5. Discuss the causes and consequences of the Spanish-American War (e.g., United States’ justifications, the role of the United States in Cuba, impact on international relations, the acquisition of new territories).
6. Discuss elements that contributed to late 19th century expansionist foreign policy, including racial ideology, missionary zeal, nationalism, domestic tensions, and economic interests.
I. The Emergence of Modern America (1890-1930)
1. Analyze the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine (1904) and explain how it modified the Monroe Doctrine (1823), justifying a new direction in United States foreign policy.
2. Discuss the rise of the Progressive Movement, including the relationship between Progressivism and the Populist Movement, Woodrow Wilson as Governor of New Jersey, anti-trust reform, the woman suffrage movement (e.g., Alice Paul), and municipal reform (e.g., Frank Hague).
3. Analyze United States foreign policy through World War I, including relations with Japan and China, the Spanish, Cuban, American War, and the building of the Panama Canal.
4. Describe the major events, personalities, and decisions of World War I, including the causes of United States involvement, social conditions on the home front, significant battles, Wilson’s peace plan, and isolationism.
5. Explore and evaluate the role of New Jersey industry in World War I.
6. Analyze President Woodrow Wilson’s "Fourteen Points" Address to Congress (1918) and explain how it differed from proposals by French and British leaders for a treaty to conclude World War I.
7. Discuss the ratification of the Versailles Treaty and United States non-participation in the League of Nations.
8. Compare and contrast the social, cultural, and technological changes in the inter-war period, including the changing role of women, the rise of a consumer economy, the resurgence of nativism and racial violence, the Harlem Renaissance, and the Great Migration of African Americans to New Jersey from the south.
9. Discuss the working conditions in the Paterson silk mills and the strike of 1913.
10. Discuss the creation of social, labor, political, and economic advocacy organizations and institutions, including the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), the AFL/CIO and other labor organizations, and the Women’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU).
11. Discuss the role of Chief Sitting Bull, the outcome and impact of the Wounded Knee Tragedy of 1890, and the suppression of the American Indian revivalist movement known as Ghost Dance.
J. The Great Depression and World War II (1929-1945)
1. Explain the economic impact of the Hawley-Smoot Tariff (1930).
2. Describe how the Great Depression and the New Deal of Franklin D. Roosevelt transformed America, including the growth of the federal government, the rise of the Welfare State, and industrial unionism.
3. Analyze how the Great Depression and the New Deal transformed New Jersey, including Work Progress Administration (WPA) projects in New Jersey, the Jersey Homesteads, and New Deal projects.
4. Discuss how the Depression contributed to the development of Social Security, the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB), and the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC).
5. Compare and contrast key events and people involved with the causes, course, and consequences of World War II, including:
? Axis Powers
? Allied Forces
? Pearl Harbor
? Battle of Midway
? D-Day Invasion
? Yalta Conference
? Potsdam Conference
? Douglas MacArthur
? Dwight Eisenhower
? George Marshall
? Winston Churchill
? J. Robert Oppenheimer and the Manhattan Project
? Franklin D. Roosevelt
? Harry Truman
? Joseph Stalin and the role of the USSR
6. Describe the political background leading to American involvement in World War II, the course of the war in Europe and Asia, the mobilization of women and African Americans into the military and related industries, the segregated military, the use of the Atom Bomb, and the founding of the United Nations.
7. Describe New Jersey’s role in World War II, including:
? The recruitment of Japanese-Americans from wartime detention camps to work at Seabrook Farm
? The role of women in defense industries
? Key military installations in New Jersey
? The role of the Battleship New Jersey
? The contributions of Albert Einstein
K. Postwar Years (1945-1970s)
1. Discuss how American policies following World War II developed as a result of the failures experienced and lessons learned after World War I.
2. Explain changes in the post war society of the United States and New Jersey, including the impact of television, the interstate highway system, the growth of the suburbs, and the democratization of education.
3. Interpret political trends in post-war New Jersey, including the New Jersey State Constitution of 1947, the impact of legal cases such as Hedgepeth and Williams v. Trenton Board of Education on the banning of segregation in the schools under the new State Constitution, the development and impact of New Jersey’s Law Against Discrimination (P.L. 1945, c.169), and the shift of political power from rural and urban areas to the suburbs.
4. Analyze United States foreign policy during the Cold War period, including US/USSR relations, United States reaction to the Soviet subjugation of Eastern Europe, the Truman Doctrine, the Marshall Plan, the Korean and Vietnam Wars, and relations with China.
5. Analyze political trends in post war America, including major United States Supreme Court decisions and the administrations of Harry Truman, Dwight D. Eisenhower, John F. Kennedy, and Lyndon B. Johnson.
6. Analyze the Civil Rights and Women’s Movements, including the Montgomery Bus Boycott, the Civil Rights Act (1957 and 1964), the Little Rock Schools Crisis, the Voting Rights Act, Brown v. Board of Education, the formation of the National Council of La Raza (NCLR), the American Indian Movement (AIM), the formation of the National Organization for Women (NOW), and the passing of Title IX.
7. Describe how changes in federal policy impacted immigration to New Jersey and America, including the shift in places of origin from Western Europe to Latin America, the Caribbean, and Asia.
L. Contemporary America (1968-present)
1. Examine the administration of American presidents, beginning with President Richard M. Nixon, as a means to analyze political and economic issues in contemporary America, including domestic policy and international affairs.
2. Investigate the economic and social patterns in contemporary New Jersey, including shifts in immigration patterns, urban decline and renewal, important New Jersey Supreme Court rulings (e.g., Mount Laurel decision), and the issue of preserving open space.
3. Describe the growth of the technology and pharmaceutical industries in New Jersey.
4. Analyze United States domestic policies, including the civil rights movement, affirmative action, the labor and women’s movements, conservatism vs. liberalism, the post-industrial economy, free trade, and international trade agreements such as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT).
5. Compare and contrast key events and people associated with foreign policy, including the fall of communism and the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War, the Cuban Missile Crisis, United States involvement in Haiti, Somalia, Bosnia, Herzegovina, and Kosovo, the Iran Hostage Crisis, and the war on terrorism.
6. Compare and contrast population trends and immigration and migration patterns in the United States (e.g., growth of Hispanic population, demographic and residential mobility).
7. Discuss major contemporary social issues, such as the evolution of governmental rights for individuals with disabilities, multiculturalism, bilingual education, gay rights, free expression in the media, and the modern feminist movement.
Descriptive Statement: Economics is the study of human behavior in relation to scarce resources. It is also about responsible citizenship. Effective economic decisions within the roles of consumer, producer, saver, and investor are more likely to be made if students understand economic concepts and their applications. The understanding of economic principles, concepts, and analytical tools is also essential for career development and financial success in the 21st century. Our students live in a world of increasing global interdependence.
Students also need to understand that the economic decisions of institutions, governments, and individuals can have immediate and far-reaching impacts. Another goal of this standard is to provide students with the necessary economic knowledge and skills for a full understanding of political, social, and historical events. These events are often incompletely or inadequately understood without a firm grasp of their economic components. For example, no modern election is without economic aspects and, in fact, economic issues have dominated many recent elections. Therefore, it is essential that New Jersey’s schools provide all students with a strong foundation in the social science of economics.
This standard addresses two strands across grades K-12:
A. Economic Literacy
B. Economics and Society
Strands and Cumulative Progress Indicators
By the end of Grade 2, students will:
A. Economic Literacy
1. Identify the basic goods and services a family needs for everyday life.
2. Explain how the products individuals eat, wear, and use impact their health and safety and the environment.
3. Identify various forms of currency (e.g., penny, nickel, quarter, dollar).
4. Explain what it means to "save" money.
B. Economics and Society
1. Identify various jobs and explain how workers in these jobs receive income for their work.
Building upon the knowledge and skills gained in the preceding grades, by the end of Grade 4, students will:
A. Economic Literacy
1. Distinguish between goods (e.g., objects) and services (e.g., activities).
2. Distinguish between a want and a need and explain how to choose needed goods and services.
3. Explain the three functions of money in the economy.
? Medium of exchange (e.g., buying)
? Measure of value (e.g., price comparison)
? Store of value (e.g., saving)
4. Discuss how natural, human, and capital resources are used to produce goods and to provide services.
5. Explain that prices are the money value of goods and services and that prices change as a result of supply and demand.
6. Define consumers as buyers and producers as workers and sellers.
7. Explain that people can improve their ability to earn income by gaining new knowledge, skills, and experiences.
8. Describe how to earn and save money in order to purchase a needed or desired item.

B. Economics and Society
1. Explain that some essential goods and services are provided by the government, such as roads, schools, parks, police, and fire protection.
2. Describe products and services that are developed, manufactured, or grown in New Jersey.
Building upon knowledge and skills gained in preceding grades, by the end of Grade 8, students will:
A. Economic Literacy
1. Discuss how needs and wants change as one ages and the impact of planning, spending and saving.
2. Explain the law of supply and demand.
3. Compare ways to save money, including checking and savings accounts, stocks and bonds, and the relationship between risk and return in investments.
4. Describe the role credit plays in the economy and explain the difference in cost between cash and credit purchases.
5. Discuss the economic growth of a nation in terms of increasing productivity, investment in physical capital, and investment in human capital.
6. Describe how private industry acquires material and energy resources, provides jobs, raises financial capital, manages production processes, and markets goods and services that create wealth in order to meet consumer and industrial requirements.
7. Discuss how innovation, entrepreneurship, competition, customer satisfaction, and continuous improvement in productivity are responsible for the rise in the standard of living in the United States and other countries with market economies.
8. Compare and contrast the characteristics of the three basic economic systems: traditional or barter and trade, market capitalism, and command (e.g., communism).
9. Explain what taxes are, how they are collected, and how tax dollars are used by local, state, and national governments to provide goods and services.
B. Economics and Society
1. Discuss how meeting the needs and wants of a growing world population impacts the environment and economic growth.
2. Describe the many ways federal, state, and local governments raise funds to meet the need for public facilities and government services.
3. Discuss how societies have been affected by industrialization and by different political and economic philosophies.
4. Describe how inventions and innovations have improved standards of living over the course of history.
5. Compare and contrast various careers, examining educational requirements and costs, salary and benefits, longevity, impact on society and the economy, and demand.
6. Analyze and give examples of how business and industry influence the buying decisions of consumers through advertising.
7. Discuss the need for ethical behavior in economic decisions and financial transactions
Building upon knowledge and skills gained in preceding grades, by the end of Grade 12, students will:
A. Economic Literacy
1. Describe different types of local, state, and federal taxes such as sales, income, and social security, discuss how deductions, exemptions, and credits reduce taxable income, and explain the difference between a progressive and regressive tax.
2. Describe the purposes of social security and Medicare.
3. Explain and interpret basic economic indicators, including Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Consumer Price Index (CPI) the rate of economic growth, the poverty rate, the deficit and national debt, and the trade deficit.
4. Identify entrepreneurs in the community and describe the risks and rewards of starting a new business.
5. Discuss how a market economy experiences periodic business cycles of prosperity and recession and that the federal government can adjust taxes, interest rates, spending, and other policies to help restore economic health.
6. Analyze federal and state budgets, and discuss the proportional share of government spending to major elements such as education, social programs, public safety, military, foreign aid, and welfare.
7. Analyze the impact of supply and demand on market adjustments and prices (e.g., real estate and interest rates).
8. Define basic terms associated with international trade such as imports, exports, quotas, embargoes, tariffs, and free trade.
9. Compare and contrast forms of insurance that protect individuals from loss or damage (e.g., life, property, health, disability, personal liability, bank deposits).
10. Explain how changes in exchange rates impact the purchasing power of people in the United States and other countries.
B. Economics and Society
1. Compare and contrast the roles of the United States government and the private sector in the United States economy (e.g., Federal Reserve System, United States Mint, Stock Exchange).
2. Evaluate international trade principles and policies.
3. Analyze labor and environmental issues affecting American citizens raised by economic globalization and free trade pacts.
4. Discuss the value and role of free and fair competition versus the social need for cooperation and how business, industry, and government try to reconcile these goals.
5. Analyze the importance of economic issues to politics and be able to distinguish the economic views of different political parties.
6. Analyze the connections and potential effects of the widening gap between the rich and the poor in the United States, the decline in labor union membership since 1950, rapidly advancing technology, globalization, and problems of public schools.
7. Compare and contrast the causes and consequences of discrimination in markets, employment, housing, business, and financial transactions.
8. Evaluate the activities and impact in various countries of major international institutions including the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, and the World Trade Organization.
9. Describe how clearly defined and enforced property rights (e.g., copyright laws, patents) are essential to a market economy.
Descriptive Statement: The study of geography is based on the principle that thinking in and understanding spatial terms will enable students to understand the many relationships of place, people, and environments. By taking an active, questioning approach to the world around them, students learn to devise their own mental world-view. As students engage in critical thinking to interpret patterns in the evolution of significant historic events and the movement of human populations on the Earth’s surface, their understanding of geography, history, economics, and civics deepens. Furthermore, the use of geographic tools and technology assists students to understand the reasons for, and the economic, political and social consequences of, human impact on the environment in different areas of the world.
This section is organized around five strands adapted from the National Geography Standards.
? The World in Spatial Terms
? Places and Regions
? Physical Systems
? Human Systems
? Environment and Society
Strands and Cumulative Progress Indicators
By the end of Grade 2, students will:
A. The World in Spatial Terms
1. Explain the spatial concepts of location, distance and direction, including:
? The location of school, home, neighborhood, community, state, and country
? The relative location of the community and places within it
? The location of continents and oceans
2. Explain that the globe is a model of the earth and maps are representations of local and distant places.
3. Demonstrate basic globe and map skills.
B. Places and Regions
1. Describe the physical features of places and regions on a simple scale.
2. Describe the physical and human characteristics of places.
C. Physical Systems
1. Recognize that the relationship of the Earth to the sun affects weather conditions, climate, and seasons.
D. Human Systems
1. Identify the types of transportation used to move goods and people.
2. Identify the modes of communication used to transmit ideas.
E. Environment and Society
1. Describe the role of resources such as air, land, water, and plants in everyday life.
2. Describe the impact of weather on everyday life.
3. Act on small-scale, personalized environmental issues such as littering and recycling, and explain why such actions are important.
Building upon knowledge and skills gained in preceding grades, by the end of Grade 4, students will:
A. The World in Spatial Terms
1. Use physical and political maps to identify locations and spatial relationships of places within local and nearby communities.
2. Describe and demonstrate different ways to measure distance (e.g., miles, kilometers, time).
3. Estimate distances between two places on a map using a scale of miles.
4. Identify the major cities of New Jersey, the United States, and the world.
5. Identify the major countries, continents, bodies of water, and mountain ranges of the world.
6. Locate time zones, latitude, longitude, and the global grid.
B. Places and Regions
1. Identify the physical and human characteristics of places and regions in New Jersey and the United States (e.g., landforms, climate, vegetation, housing).
2. Explain changes in places and regions over time and the consequences of those changes.
3. Describe the geography of New Jersey.
4. Discuss factors involved in the development of cities (e.g., transportation, food, marketplace, religion, military protection).
C. Physical Systems
1. Describe the basic components of the Earth’s physical systems, including landforms, water, erosion, weather, and climate and discuss their impact on human development.
D. Human Systems
1. Describe the development of transportation and communication networks in New Jersey and the United States.
2. Identify the distribution and characteristics of populations for different regions of New Jersey and the United States.
E. Environment and Society
1. Differentiate between living and non-living natural resources.
2. Explain the nature, characteristics, and distribution of renewable and non-renewable resources.
Building upon knowledge and skills gained in preceding grades, by the end of Grade 8, students will:
A. The World in Spatial Terms
1. Distinguish among the distinct characteristics of maps, globes, graphs, charts, diagrams, and other geographical representations, and the utility of each in solving problems.
2. Translate maps into appropriate spatial graphics to display geographical information.
3. Explain the spatial concepts of relative and absolute location and distance.
4. Estimate distances between two places on a map using a scale of miles, and use cardinal and intermediate directions when referring to a relative location.
5. Use geographic tools and technologies to pose and answer questions about spatial distributions and patterns on Earth.
6. Distinguish among the major map types, including physical, political, topographic, and demographic.
7. Explain the distribution of major human and physical features at country and global scales.
8. Use thematic maps to describe places (e.g., patterns of population, diseases, rainfall).
9. Describe and distinguish among the various map projections, including size, shape, distance, and direction.
10. Describe location technologies, such as Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Global Positioning Systems (GPS).
11. Describe the significance of the major cities of New Jersey, the United States, and the world.
B. Places and Regions
1. Compare and contrast the physical and human characteristics of places in regions in New Jersey, the United States, and the world.
2. Describe how regions change over time.
3. Compare the natural characteristics used to define a region.
4. Explain how regional systems are interconnected (e.g., watersheds, trade, transportation systems).
5. Discuss how the geography of New Jersey impacts transportation, industry, and community development.
6. Discuss the similarities and differences among rural, suburban, and urban communities.
7. Describe the types of regions and the influence and effects of region labels including:
? Formal regions: school districts, states
? Functional regions: marketing area of a newspaper, fan base of a sport team
? Perceptual regions: the Bible Belt, the Riviera in southern France
C. Physical Systems
1. Describe the characteristics and spatial distribution of major Earth ecosystems.
2. Discuss how ecosystems function locally and globally.
3. Predict effects of physical processes and changes on the Earth.
4. Discuss how the community and its environment function as an ecosystem.
5. Describe how the physical environment affects life in different regions (e.g., population density, architecture, transportation systems, industry, building materials, land use, recreation).
D. Human Systems
1. Discuss how technology affects the ways in which people perceive and use places and regions.
2. Analyze demographic characteristics to explain reasons for variations between populations.
3. Compare and contrast the primary geographic causes for world trade.
4. Analyze the patterns of settlement in different urban regions of the world.
5. Discuss how and why people cooperate, but also engage in conflict, to control the Earth’s surface.
6. Compare the patterns and processes of past and present human migration.
7. Explain and identify examples of global interdependence.
8. Describe how physical and human characteristics of regions change over time.

E. Environment and Society
1. Discuss the environmental impacts or intended and unintended consequences of major technological changes (e.g., autos and fossil fuels, nuclear power and nuclear waste).
2. Analyze the impact of various human activities and social policies on the natural environment and describe how humans have attempted to solve environmental problems through adaptation and modification.
3. Compare and contrast conservation practices and alternatives for energy resources.
4. Compare and contrast various ecosystems and describe their interrelationship and interdependence.
5. Describe world, national, and local patterns of resource distribution and utilization, and discuss the political and social impact.
6. Analyze the importance of natural and manufactured resources in New Jersey.
7. Delineate and evaluate the issues involved with sprawl, open space, and smart growth in New Jersey.
Building upon knowledge and skills gained in preceding grades, by the end of Grade 12, students will:
A. The World in Spatial Terms
1. Discuss the application of geographic tools and supporting technologies, such as GIS, GPS, the Internet, and CD databases.
2. Use maps of physical and human characteristics of the world to answer complex geographical questions.
3. Analyze, explain, and solve geographical problems using maps, supporting technologies, and other graphical representations.
4. Use geographic tools and technologies to pose and answer questions about spatial distributions and patterns on Earth.
5. Apply spatial thinking to understand the interrelationship of history, geography economics, and the environment, including domestic and international migrations, changing environmental preferences and settlement patterns, and frictions between population groups.
B. Places and Regions
1. Analyze and compare the functions and spatial arrangements of cities both locally and globally.
2. Evaluate how human interaction with the physical environment shapes the features of places and regions.
3. Analyze why places and regions are important factors to individual and social identity.
C. Physical Systems
1. Assess relationships between soil, climate, plant, and animal life and how this impacts the distribution of ecosystems.
2. Analyze the effects of both physical and human changes in ecosystems, such as acid rain, ozone layer, carbon-dioxide levels, and clean water issues.
D. Human Systems
1. Analyze the impact of human migration on physical and human systems.
2. Explain the spatial-technological processes of cultural convergence (cultural adaptations over distances) and divergence (separating effects of cultural diffusion over distances).
3. Analyze the historic movement patterns of people and their goods and their relationship to economic activity.
4. Analyze the processes that change urban areas.
5. Analyze how cooperation and conflict influence the control of economic, political, and social entities on Earth.

E. Environment and Society
1. Discuss the global impacts of human modification of the physical environment (e.g., the built environment).
2. Discuss the importance of maintaining biodiversity.
3. Analyze examples of changes in the physical environment that have altered the capacity of the environment to support human activity, including pollution, salinization, deforestation, species extinction, population growth, and natural disasters.
4. Compare and contrast the historical movement patterns of people and goods in the world, United States, and New Jersey and analyze the basis for increasing global interdependence.
5. Evaluate policies and programs related to the use of local, national and global resources.
6. Analyze the human need for respect for and informed management of all resources (sustainability), including human populations, energy, air, land, and water to insure that the earth will support future generations.
7. Describe how and why historical and cultural knowledge can help to improve present and future environmental maintenance.
8. Delineate and evaluate the environmental impact of technological change in human history (e.g., printing press, electricity and electronics, automobiles, computer, and medical technology).